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The 12 Ionization Levels of the Atom



The 12 Ionization Levels of the Atom

When you are inter­ested in physics you must read “Unbe­liev­able”!

At the end of chap­ter 5. The Quan­ti­sa­tion of Dis­tance we stated that we would show that the rydberg-​distance is exactly *Rb and that there are 12 ion­iza­tion levels.

Cal­cu­lat­ing the prin­ci­pal quan­tum num­ber n for the rydberg-​distance we found in accor­dance with QM that . This means that accord­ing to QM there are over 40 ion­iza­tion lev­els from the Bohr-​distance to the rydberg-​distance. The prin­ci­pal quan­tum num­ber is cal­cu­lated with the help of equa­tion (7):

Sub­sti­tu­tion of the Compton-​radius (equa­tion 13) gives

(7a)

It is rel­e­vant to observe that with equa­tion (7a) and there­fore also with equa­tion (7) we are cal­cu­lat­ing the ratio between Rn and Rc; we are com­par­ing 3rd QD Rn with 2nd QD Rc.

With equa­tion (6)we are with Me (and there­fore Rc) in the 2nd QD. Equa­tion (6) has there­fore to be trans­lated to the 3rd QD. The energy value of (6) is inde­pen­dent of the quan­tum dimen­sion and there­fore cor­rect, but the cal­cu­lated prin­ci­pal quan­tum num­ber is not. We can achieve the cor­rect trans­for­ma­tion of equa­tion (6) from 2-​QD to 3-​QD with (5c):

For n=1 we cal­cu­late the Bohr-​distance. We define instead of in equa­tion (9):

Both equa­tions are still iden­ti­cal for .

Actu­ally noth­ing has changed. The only dif­fer­ence is that N3 indi­cates that N is deter­mined by the 3rd quan­tum dimen­sion and not by the 2nd QD. All that changes is that N is not inte­ger for all inte­ger val­ues of n. This is of no impor­tance because the quan­ti­sa­tion of dis­tance has not changed. The ratio Rn/​Rb is still inte­ger related accord­ing to . The dimen­sion cor­rec­tion only changed the num­ber of ion­iza­tion lev­els in the range from the Bohr-​radius to the rydberg-​distance from 41.5 to 12; the actual observed num­ber of ion­iza­tion levels.

At the Bohr-​distance point-​volumes in space around a charge +Q cre­ates two “per­fect” bulb shell tun­nels with radius Rc (begin­ning of the 3rd quan­tum dimen­sion). Out­side the tun­nels at the Bohr-​radius space is not yet “per­fectly” 3-​dimensional for the electron.

For dis­tances from +Q fur­ther than the ryd­bergcon­stant (N>12) there is no ion­iza­tion level any­more because the 4th quan­tum dimen­sion has started where space is every­where “per­fectly” 3-​dimensional for the electron.

Next chap­ter: Planck’s con­stant

When you are interested in physics you must read “Unbelievable“!

At the end of chapter 5. The Quantisation of Distance we stated that we would show that the rydberg-distance is exactly *Rb and that there are 12 ionization levels.

Calculating the principal quantum number n for the rydberg-distance we found in accordance with QM that . This means that according to QM there are over 40 ionization levels from the Bohr-distance to the rydberg-distance. The principal quantum number is calculated with the help of equation (7):

Substitution of the Compton-radius (equation 13) gives

  (7a)

It is relevant to observe that with equation (7a) and therefore also with equation (7) we are calculating the ratio between Rn and Rc; we are comparing 3rd QD Rn with 2nd QD Rc.

With equation (6)we are with Me (and therefore Rc) in the 2nd QD. Equation (6) has therefore to be translated to the 3rd QD. The energy value of (6) is independent of the quantum dimension and therefore correct, but the calculated principal quantum number is not. We can achieve the correct transformation of equation (6) from 2-QD to 3-QD with (5c):

For n=1 we calculate the Bohr-distance. We define  instead of  in equation (9):

Both equations are still identical for .

Actually nothing has changed. The only difference is that N3 indicates that N is determined by the 3rd quantum dimension and not by the 2nd QD. All that changes is that N is not integer for all integer values of n. This is of no importance because the quantisation of distance has not changed. The ratio Rn/Rb is still integer related according to . The dimension correction only changed the number of ionization levels in the range from the Bohr-radius to the rydberg-distance from 41.5 to 12; the actual observed number of ionization levels.

At the Bohr-distance point-volumes in space around a charge +Q creates two “perfect” bulb shell tunnels with radius Rc (beginning of the 3rd quantum dimension). Outside the tunnels at the Bohr-radius space is not yet “perfectly” 3-dimensional for the electron.

For distances from +Q further than the rydbergconstant (N>12) there is no ionization level anymore because the 4th quantum dimension has started where space is everywhere “perfectly” 3-dimensional for the electron.

Next chapter: Planck’s constant

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