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The denial of dragged ether



The denial of dragged ether

When you are inter­ested in physics you must read “Unbe­liev­able”!

When light trav­els through space by means of a medium (ether) one can assume two pos­si­ble ethers: absolute and dragged ether.

In 1727 Bradley con­ducted mea­sure­ments on a star called y-​Draconis. This star stands at an angle of 75 degrees in rela­tion to the ellip­tic path of the earth around the sun. Bradley reg­is­tered dur­ing his obser­va­tions that the posi­tion of the star y-​Draconis seems to change with the posi­tion of the earth in her orbit around the sun. The observed appar­ent dif­fer­ent ele­va­tion of the star is depen­dent on the posi­tion of the earth in orbit around the sun. This change of ele­va­tion was called stel­lar aber­ra­tion. The stel­lar aber­ra­tion can­not be explained by the par­al­lax; the change of angle caused by the orbit around the Sun. The dis­tance of the star y-​Draconis to the Sun is too great to show mea­sur­able parallax.

You might com­pare this phe­nom­e­non with rain falling on the front shield of a car. When the car stands still and rain is falling with an angle at the front shield, this angle will decrease when the car moves for­ward. The rain seems to hit the shield more from the front. This seems so for the dri­ver, but it is only appear­ance. The rain, of course, keeps falling down from the sky at the same angle inde­pen­dently of the move­ment of the car. When the dri­ver goes in reverse, the rain appears to fall accord­ingly more from above.

When the move­ment of the earth influ­ences ether, through which light trav­els in all direc­tions with the same speed, then the speed effect of the earth around the sun has to dis­ap­pear. In other words the mea­sured speed of light reach­ing the observer on Earth is, with dragged ether, always the same c. Even if the actual speed of the pho­ton approach­ing the Earth was different.

This is very good com­pa­ra­ble with sound effects. The speed effect of a jet is not found in the speed of the sound waves. Whether the jet flies with 200 or 800 miles/​hour this speed can­not be observed in the speed of the sound waves reg­is­tered by the observer.

The speed of the jet can only be deduced with the observed Doppler-​effect of the sound and/​or the appar­ent dif­fer­ent posi­tion where the sound waves seem to orig­i­nate (com­pa­ra­ble with stel­lar aberration).

When a pho­ton is emit­ted towards the Earth from an object mov­ing with v to the Earth than the speed of the pho­ton towards the Earth will be c+v as long as the pho­ton is in the ether under influ­ence of the object. When the pho­ton reaches the ether under influ­ence of Earth the speed effect will dis­ap­pear; only the Doppler-​effect and stel­lar aber­ra­tion of the speed are observable.

With dragged ether all direct speed effects of the Earth mov­ing towards and from the star can­not be mea­sured directly. The rel­a­tive speed of the earth com­pared to y-​Draconis can­not, with dragged ether, be present any­more. This how­ever does not mean that the speed of a pho­ton com­ing towards the earth and mov­ing in ether under influ­ence of the star was not approach­ing the earth with a dif­fer­ent speed than the speed of light.

Fig­ure 1. The light from star y-​Draconis reach­ing our solar system.

If the Earth was in orbit around the sun and air was the medium, the speed of the earth through the air, the medium, would be approx. 0.1 km per hour. This very low speed, com­pared to the speed of sound, can­not be mea­sured as soon as the sound waves leave the “air” under influ­ence of the earth.

So accord­ing to the anal­ogy the speed of the pho­tons from the star y-​Draconis, with dragged ether, will always reach the earth with the speed of light c. The speed towards or from the star can­not be mea­sured. The only effects that remain are the Doppler-​effect and the stel­lar aber­ra­tion. The observer can­not deter­mine the speed of the plane by means of the speed of the sound waves. The only infor­ma­tion left in the sound wave is the Doppler– effect and the aber­ra­tion (appar­ent change of angle of the sound wave).

The move­ment of the earth in orbit around the sun can­not be obtained from the speed of light when there is dragged ether. On earth it is there­fore not pos­si­ble with dragged ether to mea­sure the speed towards or from any star on the basis of the mea­sured speed of light. The effects that can be mea­sured will be the Doppler-​effect and the stel­lar aberration.

So with the assump­tion of the exis­tence of dragged ether, hav­ing the same effect on light as the air has on sound waves, the con­clu­sion that no stel­lar aber­ra­tion can be mea­sured is not jus­ti­fied. When draw­ing the con­clu­sion that stel­lar aber­ra­tion can­not exist when there is dragged ether, one gives credit to char­ac­ter­is­tics of dragged ether con­trary to the phys­i­cal enti­ties of vac­uum. We will show with­out any doubt that when dragged ether exist stel­lar aber­ra­tion has to occur exactly the way it is mea­sured. The mea­sured stel­lar aber­ra­tion is in fact the very strong empir­i­cal evi­dence that dragged ether has to exist.

Next chap­ter: The stel­lar aber­ra­tion of the star y-​Draconis with ether

When you are interested in physics you must read “Unbelievable“!

When light travels through space by means of a medium (ether) one can assume two possible ethers: absolute and dragged ether.

In 1727 Bradley conducted measurements on a star called y-Draconis. This star stands at an angle of 75 degrees in relation to the elliptic path of the earth around the sun. Bradley registered during his observations that the position of the star y-Draconis seems to change with the position of the earth in her orbit around the sun. The observed apparent different elevation of the star is dependent on the position of the earth in orbit around the sun. This change of elevation was called stellar aberration. The stellar aberration cannot be explained by the parallax; the change of angle caused by the orbit around the Sun. The distance of the star y-Draconis to the Sun is too great to show measurable parallax.

You might compare this phenomenon with rain falling on the front shield of a car. When the car stands still and rain is falling with an angle at the front shield, this angle will decrease when the car moves forward. The rain seems to hit the shield more from the front. This seems so for the driver, but it is only appearance. The rain, of course, keeps falling down from the sky at the same angle independently of the movement of the car. When the driver goes in reverse, the rain appears to fall accordingly more from above.

When the movement of the earth influences ether, through which light travels in all directions with the same speed, then the speed effect of the earth around the sun has to disappear. In other words the measured speed of light reaching the observer on Earth is, with dragged ether, always the same c. Even if the actual speed of the photon approaching the Earth was different.

This is very good comparable with sound effects. The speed effect of a jet is not found in the speed of the sound waves. Whether the jet flies with 200 or 800 miles/hour this speed cannot be observed in the speed of the sound waves registered by the observer.

The speed of the jet can only be deduced with the observed Doppler-effect of the sound and/or the apparent different position where the sound waves seem to originate (comparable with stellar aberration).

When a photon is emitted towards the Earth from an object moving with v to the Earth than the speed of the photon towards the Earth will be c+v as long as the photon is in the ether under influence of the object. When the photon reaches the ether under influence of Earth the speed effect will disappear; only the Doppler-effect and stellar aberration of the speed are observable.

With dragged ether all direct speed effects of the Earth moving towards and from the star cannot be measured directly. The relative speed of the earth compared to y-Draconis cannot, with dragged ether, be present anymore. This however does not mean that the speed of a photon coming towards the earth and moving in ether under influence of the star was not approaching the earth with a different speed than the speed of light.

Figure 1.   The light from star y-Draconis reaching our solar system.

If the Earth was in orbit around the sun and air was the medium, the speed of the earth through the air, the medium, would be approx. 0.1 km per hour. This very low speed, compared to the speed of sound, cannot be measured as soon as the sound waves leave the “air” under influence of the earth.

So according to the analogy the speed of the photons from the star y-Draconis, with dragged ether, will always reach the earth with the speed of light c. The speed towards or from the star cannot be measured. The only effects that remain are the Doppler-effect and the stellar aberration. The observer cannot determine the speed of the plane by means of the speed of the sound waves. The only information left in the sound wave is the Doppler- effect and the aberration (apparent change of angle of the sound wave).

The movement of the earth in orbit around the sun cannot be obtained from the speed of light when there is dragged ether. On earth it is therefore not possible with dragged ether to measure the speed towards or from any star on the basis of the measured speed of light. The effects that can be measured will be the Doppler-effect and the stellar aberration.

So with the assumption of the existence of dragged ether, having the same effect on light as the air has on sound waves, the conclusion that no stellar aberration can be measured is not justified. When drawing the conclusion that stellar aberration cannot exist when there is dragged ether, one gives credit to characteristics of dragged ether contrary to the physical entities of vacuum. We will show without any doubt that when dragged ether exist stellar aberration has to occur exactly the way it is measured. The measured stellar aberration is in fact the very strong empirical evidence that dragged ether has to exist.

Next chapter: The stellar aberration of the star y-Draconis with ether

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