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The apparent change of angle in a force-free ether



The apparent change of angle in a force-free ether

When you are inter­ested in physics you must read “Unbe­liev­able”!

The reader may won­der how an appar­ent change in angle and impulse of a pho­ton, the stel­lar aber­ra­tion, is pos­si­ble when there is free-​force ether (vac­uum). The stel­lar aber­ra­tion is observed from the earth, but actu­ally there is no real change of the path dur­ing the pas­sage of the pho­ton from the star y–Dra­co­nis to Earth. The pho­ton only appears to come from a dif­fer­ent direc­tion. The on Earth observed stel­lar aber­ra­tion is not for real.

To com­pre­hend this the reader must be aware of the rel­a­tive move­ment of both ethers in fig­ure 2.

In fig­ure 5 we con­sider the pho­ton from the star y–Dra­co­nis arriv­ing and observed on the earth. The stel­lar aber­ra­tion takes place at the sur­face where the two ethers have a rel­a­tive speed to each other.

Fig­ure 5. The imag­i­nary change of direction/​impulse of the pho­ton from y-​Draconis.

At t=0 the pho­ton from y–Dra­co­nis is enter­ing the ether under influ­ence of the earth at point A. The Earth is then at the posi­tion Earth A. The moment the pho­ton enters ether II the change of angle β, the stel­lar aber­ra­tion, and Doppler-​effect occurs. The pho­ton is now trav­el­ing with the speed c in ether II. After the pen­e­tra­tion of the pho­ton in ether II it takes the pho­ton t sec­onds to arrive on the sur­face of the earth to be observed. Dur­ing the t sec­onds the Earth moves 30km/sec.t meter to the right (Earth B), just like ether II, which is under influ­ence of the earth. So ether II also moves dur­ing t sec­onds to the right.

When the pho­ton reaches the observer on Earth, one observes the stel­lar aber­ra­tion ß, but yet the pho­ton has kept the orig­i­nal direc­tion it had, when it was emit­ted from the star y–Dra­co­nis. The pho­ton for the observer on Earth seems to come from B, but that is only appearance.

The direc­tion of the pho­ton in ether II has changed (ß) com­pared to the direc­tion in ether I, but because ether II moves rel­a­tively to ether I, the orig­i­nal direc­tion of the pho­ton is main­tained. The stel­lar aber­ra­tion in ether II com­pen­sates exactly for the rel­a­tive move­ment of ether II com­pared to ether I. The pho­ton keeps the same direc­tion and impulse before or after pen­e­trat­ing ether II for any observer in rest with the Earth or y–Dra­co­nis.

It is of no influ­ence at what dis­tance from the Earth the stel­lar aber­ra­tion occurs. The observed stel­lar aber­ra­tion ß does not imply a real change in direc­tion of the pho­ton. Although it appears that the pho­ton has changed direc­tion, and there­fore the impulse seems to be altered, this is actu­ally not the case. The assumed force-​free ether (vac­uum) does not change the impulse or direc­tion of photons.

The stel­lar aber­ra­tion pre­dicted by the the­o­ret­i­cal for­mu­las derived in this chap­ter matches the actual, empir­i­cally mea­sured, aber­ra­tion of any star at any time dur­ing the year. The empir­i­cal aber­ra­tion evi­dence sup­port­ing the dragged ether the­ory is over­whelm­ing. The same can­not be said for the poor expla­na­tion of stel­lar aber­ra­tion given by SRT.

The expla­na­tion given by SRT for stel­lar aber­ra­tion is very paled. Actu­ally the only “expla­na­tion” SRT gives is the Lorentz-​factor. The stel­lar aber­ra­tion of a star that stands ver­ti­cal on the periph­ery of the Earth around the Sun can cor­rectly be cal­cu­lated with the mys­te­ri­ous expla­na­tions of SRT. For all other stars the expla­na­tion of SRT is inad­e­quate. It is hard to believe that only the assump­tion of an absolute empty space and the deriva­tion of the Lorentz-​factor with SRT is enough to accept a spec­u­la­tive the­ory like SRT! The expla­na­tion of stel­lar aber­ra­tion given by ether the­ory is much bet­ter, and should be pre­ferred by Science.

The mea­sured stel­lar aber­ra­tion is for any star with the same incli­na­tion (θ) exactly the same (except for the phase shift caused by the posi­tion of the earth in the orbit around the sun).

Next chap­ter: The stel­lar aber­ra­tion and dragged ether

When you are interested in physics you must read “Unbelievable“!

The reader may wonder how an apparent change in angle and impulse of a photon, the stellar aberration, is possible when there is free-force ether (vacuum). The stellar aberration is observed from the earth, but actually there is no real change of the path during the passage of the photon from the star y-Draconis to Earth. The photon only appears to come from a different direction. The on Earth observed stellar aberration is not for real.

To comprehend this the reader must be aware of the relative movement of both ethers in figure 2.

In figure 5 we consider the photon from the star y-Draconis arriving and observed on the earth. The stellar aberration takes place at the surface where the two ethers have a relative speed to each other.

Figure 5.  The imaginary change of direction/impulse of the photon from y-Draconis.

At t=0 the photon from y-Draconis is entering the ether under influence of the earth at point A. The Earth is then at the position Earth A. The moment the photon enters ether II the change of angle β, the stellar aberration, and Doppler-effect occurs. The photon is now traveling with the speed c in ether II. After the penetration of the photon in ether II it takes the photon t seconds to arrive on the surface of the earth to be observed. During the seconds the Earth moves 30km/sec.t meter to the right (Earth B), just like ether II, which is under influence of the earth. So ether II also moves during t seconds to the right.

When the photon reaches the observer on Earth, one observes the stellar aberration ß, but yet the photon has kept the original direction it had, when it was emitted from the star y-Draconis. The photon for the observer on Earth seems to come from B, but that is only appearance.

The direction of the photon in ether II has changed (ß) compared to the direction in ether I, but because ether II moves relatively to ether I, the original direction of the photon is maintained. The stellar aberration in ether II compensates exactly for the relative movement of ether II compared to ether I. The photon keeps the same direction and impulse before or after penetrating ether II for any observer in rest with the Earth or y-Draconis.

It is of no influence at what distance from the Earth the stellar aberration occurs. The observed stellar aberration ß does not imply a real change in direction of the photon. Although it appears that the photon has changed direction, and therefore the impulse seems to be altered, this is actually not the case. The assumed force-free ether (vacuum) does not change the impulse or direction of photons.

The stellar aberration predicted by the theoretical formulas derived in this chapter matches the actual, empirically measured, aberration of any star at any time during the year. The empirical aberration evidence supporting the dragged ether theory is overwhelming. The same cannot be said for the poor explanation of stellar aberration given by SRT.

The explanation given by SRT for stellar aberration is very paled. Actually the only “explanation” SRT gives is the Lorentz-factor. The stellar aberration of a star that stands vertical on the periphery of the Earth around the Sun can correctly be calculated with the mysterious explanations of SRT. For all other stars the explanation of SRT is inadequate. It is hard to believe that only the assumption of an absolute empty space and the derivation of the Lorentz-factor with SRT is enough  to accept a speculative theory like SRT! The explanation of stellar aberration given by ether theory is much better, and should be preferred by Science.

The measured stellar aberration is for any star with the same inclination (θ) exactly the same (except for the phase shift caused by the position of the earth in the orbit around the sun).

Next chapter: The stellar aberration and dragged ether

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