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The ether again



The ether again

When you are inter­ested in physics you must read “Unbe­liev­able”!

For the ether the­ory the ether itself is of course of the utmost impor­tance. A descrip­tion how the ether con­tributes to phys­i­cal processes is inevitable. The exam­i­na­tion given in the pre­vi­ous chap­ters is not sci­en­tific but nev­er­the­less nec­es­sary to be able to under­stand the under­ly­ing processes. There is no other way to describe the phys­i­cal phe­nom­ena. This prob­lem does not occur with the present per­cep­tion of The­o­ret­i­cal Physics because the vac­uum is assumed rel­a­tive and absolutely empty. A descrip­tion of the phys­i­cal processes that occur is hardly pos­si­ble when the phys­i­cal back­ground is deter­mined by the rel­a­tiv­ity of time and space. The math­e­mat­i­cal inter­pre­ta­tion deter­mines the phys­i­cal out­come completely.

With the ether the­ory this is not the case. The descrip­tion of the processes tak­ing place in the ether is the most essen­tial part. The math­e­mat­i­cal out­come deter­mines whether the descrip­tion is con­sis­tent with real­ity: the obser­va­tions. The math here does not deter­mine the out­come; it shows the way. The fan­tasy offers infi­nite pos­si­bil­i­ties to imag­ine how things could be. The math sep­a­rates the fool­ish thoughts from those that make sense. As soon as math takes over and the per­cep­tions of the phys­i­cal events get derived from the math­e­mat­i­cal out­come, one can no longer cor­rect the the­ory by the use of “com­mon sense”.

No math­e­mat­i­cal solu­tion describes a phys­i­cal process com­pletely accu­rate, so there is the real dan­ger that purely math­e­mat­i­cally derived sci­ence leads to incor­rect phys­i­cal con­clu­sions. As long as math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els can be fal­si­fied there is empir­i­cal sci­ence. When how­ever the extrap­o­la­tion can­not be fal­si­fied, then there is no sci­en­tif­i­cally obtained knowledge.

The up till now pre­sumed visual char­ac­ter­is­tics of ether have not added any enti­ties that can­not exist in a vac­uum. The pre­sumed ether is still com­pletely con­sis­tent with vac­uum. We only dis­cussed the elec­tric field in the ether and the phys­i­cal lim­i­ta­tions in trans­fer­ring the poten­tial energy of an elec­tric field to the kinetic energy of a fast mov­ing charged par­ti­cle. Vac­uum, and there­fore also ether, has yet qual­i­ties not men­tioned. The ether must be able to prop­a­gate elec­tro­mag­netic waves. Mag­netic energy still has to be described and the pos­si­bil­ity of aris­ing ele­men­tary par­ti­cles must be plausible.

The visual char­ac­ter­is­tics we attrib­uted to the ether until now was lim­ited to the assump­tion of the pos­si­ble exis­tence of a point-​volume, that can be (partly) sep­a­rated in a neg­a­tive and pos­i­tive vol­ume by means of an elec­tric field.

Men­tioned is how a charge Q builds up an elec­tric field. When the charge is removed, the force behind the sep­a­ra­tion in the ether, the elec­tric field, will dis­ap­pear through a dielec­tric cur­rent oppo­site to the cur­rent when the field was built. The elec­tric field will col­lapse. The point-​volumes will recover.

The energy of the elec­tric field of a bulb shaped charge in a vac­uum is:

Q is the charge in Coulombs and R the radius of the bulb in meters.

When charge Q dis­ap­pears the ten­sion in the ether, the elec­tric field around Q, will recover. In a shock wave, with the speed of light, the dielec­tric charge dis­place­ment eases around Q. The energy of the elec­tric field dis­charges by means of a mag­netic cur­rent. The restora­tion of the bal­ance in the ether is not for real, because the energyWe, present in the ether, has not dis­ap­peared. The energy of the field is trans­formed to elec­tro­mag­netic energy. The dis­charge con­cen­trates at the point where charge Q is sup­posed to be. The charge has dis­ap­peared, but in the ether there is still a point-​volume. The released energy will cause an elec­tro­mag­netic oscillation.

To make this process plau­si­ble we pre­sume a point-​volume where the neg­a­tive and pos­i­tive vol­ume (charge) is sep­a­rated. We start with assum­ing the pos­i­tive charge is on the out­side of the point-​volume (sit­u­a­tion 1 in fig­ure 13). The elec­tro­sta­tic force in the point-​volume will force both neg­a­tive and pos­i­tive charge to move. When sit­u­a­tion 2 in fig­ure 13 is reached, there is no sep­a­ra­tion of charge any­more. The poten­tial energy has become pure mag­netic energy; the move­ment of the neg­a­tive and/​or pos­i­tive charge presents mag­netic energy.

Fig­ure 13. Elec­tro­mag­netic oscil­la­tion in the point-​volume.

The oscil­la­tion will not stop. The cur­rent will pro­ceed and there­fore the reversed sit­u­a­tion, where the neg­a­tive charge is sit­u­ated at the out­side of the point-​volume, will occur (sit­u­a­tion 3).

After sit­u­a­tion 3, sit­u­a­tion 4 reversed com­pa­ra­ble to sit­u­a­tion 2 will occur and after that sit­u­a­tion 1 will occur again etc. The elec­tric energy of the field has now become an elec­tro­mag­netic oscil­la­tion where elec­tro­sta­tic energy and mag­netic energy alternate.

A point-​volume in the ether is not alone. The sep­a­ra­tion in sit­u­a­tion 1 will force sur­round­ing point-​volumes to sep­a­rate as well and so on. The ether around the point-​volume where Q was sit­u­ated will oscil­late. The influ­ence of the oscil­la­tion to the sur­round­ing ether will be lim­ited by the oscil­la­tion fre­quency v in the cen­tral point-​volume and the lag of the ether lim­ited by c. The wave­length of the oscil­la­tion in the ether is lim­ited. The pur­pose of the above illus­tra­tion is to show how it is pos­si­ble that an elec­tro­mag­netic oscil­la­tion occurs in the ether.

Apart from the described oscil­la­tion one can also imag­ine oscil­la­tions in point-​volumes that are not in bal­ance with each other. When point-​volumes are oscil­lat­ing inde­pen­dently, not in phase with each other like in the described oscil­la­tion, then one can speak of chaotic oscil­la­tion. When point-​volumes are oscil­lat­ing inde­pen­dently of each other the inter­ac­tion between point-​volumes will be chaotic. This form of oscil­la­tion has the char­ac­ter­is­tics of ther­mal radiation.

The chaotic oscil­la­tion of the ether, the inter­ac­tion of all point-​volumes not oscil­lat­ing in phase, is trans­ferred to par­ti­cles in the ether. Nucleus, elec­trons and mol­e­cules placed in the ether will gain chaotic oscil­la­tion when the chaos of their oscil­la­tion is less than the chaos in the sur­round­ing ether. The oppo­site will occur when the tem­per­a­ture of mat­ter, the chaos of oscil­la­tion, is higher than the sur­round­ing ether and the mat­ter will give up energy to the ether by dimin­ish­ing the own chaotic oscil­la­tion through enlarg­ing the oscil­la­tion of the sur­round­ing ether. Only when the tem­per­a­ture is zero degrees Kelvin there is no chaotic vibra­tion in ether and matter.

This approach offers a dif­fer­ent point of view towards the back­ground radi­a­tion observed in space sur­round­ing the earth. The back­ground radi­a­tion, in all direc­tions, agrees with a tem­per­a­ture of approx. 3 degrees Kelvin. This radi­a­tion can now be explained as the chaotic oscil­la­tion of space around us: the tem­per­a­ture of space. In accor­dance to this per­cep­tion the back­ground radi­a­tion is the chaotic oscil­la­tion energy of ether. The con­se­quence of this is that vac­uum may con­tain (dark) energy and there­fore (dark) mass.

The above argu­ments have no con­se­quence. The illus­tra­tion shows only how the ether might han­dle energy in dif­fer­ent forms, con­sis­tent with the phys­i­cal prop­er­ties of a vac­uum. Proof that the ideas are valid is not obtained. It only indi­cates that it might be so. The ether pre­sented can be respon­si­ble for the observed phys­i­cal phenomena.

Until now the ether is described by means of the influ­ence of a par­ti­cle with charge Q. Because elec­tron and pro­ton are sta­ble we had to assume that the pos­i­tive (+Qe) and neg­a­tive (-Qe) charge of point-​volumes sur­round­ing par­ti­cle Q can­not leave the neu­tral point-​volume freely. Would it be pos­si­ble for the charge or a frac­tion thereof to leave the point-​volume and pen­e­trate the charge, then charged par­ti­cles would not be sta­ble under the sketched circumstances.

The ether, the point-​volume, as described needs to have one more char­ac­ter­is­tic to be able to explain sta­ble par­ti­cles like elec­trons, pro­tons and neu­trons. Apart from the ear­lier assumed pos­si­ble charge sep­a­ra­tion in the point-​volume, the pos­i­tive and neg­a­tive charge must also be able to leave the point-​volume under restricted circumstances.

We first had to assume that the neg­a­tive and or pos­i­tive charges can­not be free to leave the point-​volume because then the charge in the point-​volumes sur­round­ing the charged par­ti­cle Q would pen­e­trate the charged par­ti­cle and destroy respec­tively anni­hi­late it.

When we how­ever assume that the pos­i­tive or neg­a­tive charge can (partly) leave the point-​volume and pen­e­trate in other point-​volumes, the sta­ble par­ti­cles like elec­tron and pro­ton must have char­ac­ter­is­tics that pre­vent the charge of the point-​volumes to pen­e­trate and anni­hi­late these particles.

A sta­ble par­ti­cle has to have an entity that pro­hibits the charge in ether to pen­e­trate the par­ti­cle when we assume the charge can leave the point-​volumes.

Next chap­ter: The elec­tron

When you are interested in physics you must read “Unbelievable“!

For the ether theory the ether itself is of course of the utmost importance. A description how the ether contributes to physical processes is inevitable. The examination given in the previous chapters is not scientific but nevertheless necessary to be able to understand the underlying processes. There is no other way to describe the physical phenomena. This problem does not occur with the present perception of Theoretical Physics because the vacuum is assumed relative and absolutely empty. A description of the physical processes that occur is hardly possible when the physical background is determined by the relativity of time and space. The mathematical interpretation determines the physical outcome completely.

With the ether theory this is not the case. The description of the processes taking place in the ether is the most essential part. The mathematical outcome determines whether the description is consistent with reality: the observations. The math here does not determine the outcome; it shows the way. The fantasy offers infinite possibilities to imagine how things could be. The math separates the foolish thoughts from those that make sense. As soon as math takes over and the perceptions of the physical events get derived from the mathematical outcome, one can no longer correct the theory by the use of “common sense”.

No mathematical solution describes a physical process completely accurate, so there is the real danger that purely mathematically derived science leads to incorrect physical conclusions. As long as mathematical models can be falsified there is empirical science. When however the extrapolation cannot be falsified, then there is no scientifically obtained knowledge.

The up till now presumed visual characteristics of ether have not added any entities that cannot exist in a vacuum. The presumed ether is still completely consistent with vacuum.  We only discussed the electric field in the ether and the physical limitations in transferring the potential energy of an electric field to the kinetic energy of a fast moving charged particle. Vacuum, and therefore also ether, has yet qualities not mentioned. The ether must be able to propagate electromagnetic waves. Magnetic energy still has to be described and the possibility of arising elementary particles must be plausible.

The visual characteristics we attributed to the ether until now was limited to the assumption of the possible existence of a point-volume, that can be (partly) separated in a negative and positive volume by means of an electric field.

Mentioned is how a charge Q builds up an electric field. When the charge is removed, the force behind the separation in the ether, the electric field, will disappear through a dielectric current opposite to the current when the field was built. The electric field will collapse. The point-volumes will recover.

The energy of the electric field of a bulb shaped charge in a vacuum is:

Q is the charge in Coulombs and R the radius of the bulb in meters.

When charge Q disappears the tension in the ether, the electric field around Q, will recover. In a shock wave, with the speed of light, the dielectric charge displacement eases around Q. The energy of the electric field discharges by means of a magnetic current. The restoration of the balance in the ether is not for real, because the energyWe, present in the ether, has not disappeared. The energy of the field is transformed to electromagnetic energy. The discharge concentrates at the point where charge Q is supposed to be. The charge has disappeared, but in the ether there is still a point-volume. The released energy will cause an electromagnetic oscillation.

To make this process plausible we presume a point-volume where the negative and positive volume (charge) is separated. We start with assuming the positive charge is on the outside of the point-volume (situation 1 in figure 13). The electrostatic force in the point-volume will force both negative and positive charge to move. When situation 2 in figure 13 is reached, there is no separation of charge anymore. The potential energy has become pure magnetic energy; the movement of the negative and/or positive charge presents magnetic energy.

Figure 13.      Electromagnetic oscillation in the point-volume.

The oscillation will not stop. The current will proceed and therefore the reversed situation, where the negative charge is situated at the outside of the point-volume, will occur (situation 3).

After situation 3, situation 4 reversed comparable to situation 2 will occur and after that situation 1 will occur again etc. The electric energy of the field has now become an electromagnetic oscillation where electrostatic energy and magnetic energy alternate.

A point-volume in the ether is not alone. The separation in situation 1 will force surrounding point-volumes to separate as well and so on. The ether around the point-volume where Q was situated will oscillate. The influence of the oscillation to the surrounding ether will be limited by the oscillation frequency in the central point-volume and the lag of the ether limited by c. The wavelength of the oscillation in the ether is limited. The purpose of the above illustration is to show how it is possible that an electromagnetic oscillation occurs in the ether.

Apart from the described oscillation one can also imagine oscillations in point-volumes that are not in balance with each other. When point-volumes are oscillating independently, not in phase with each other like in the described oscillation, then one can speak of chaotic oscillation. When point-volumes are oscillating independently of each other the interaction between point-volumes will be chaotic. This form of oscillation has the characteristics of thermal radiation.

The chaotic oscillation of the ether, the interaction of all point-volumes not oscillating in phase, is transferred to particles in the ether. Nucleus, electrons and molecules placed in the ether will gain chaotic oscillation when the chaos of their oscillation is less than the chaos in the surrounding ether. The opposite will occur when the temperature of matter, the chaos of oscillation, is higher than the surrounding ether and the matter will give up energy to the ether by diminishing the own chaotic oscillation through enlarging the oscillation of the surrounding ether. Only when the temperature is zero degrees Kelvin there is no chaotic vibration in ether and matter.

This approach offers a different point of view towards the background radiation observed in space surrounding the earth. The background radiation, in all directions, agrees with a temperature of approx. 3 degrees Kelvin. This radiation can now be explained as the chaotic oscillation of space around us: the temperature of space. In accordance to this perception the background radiation is the chaotic oscillation energy of ether. The consequence of this is that vacuum may contain (dark) energy and therefore (dark) mass.

The above arguments have no consequence. The illustration shows only how the ether might handle energy in different forms, consistent with the physical properties of a vacuum. Proof that the ideas are valid is not obtained. It only indicates that it might be so. The ether presented can be responsible for the observed physical phenomena.

Until now the ether is described by means of the influence of a particle with charge Q. Because electron and proton are stable we had to assume that the positive (+Qe) and negative (-Qe) charge of point-volumes surrounding particle Q cannot leave the neutral point-volume freely. Would it be possible for the charge or a fraction thereof to leave the point-volume and penetrate the charge, then charged particles would not be stable under the sketched circumstances.

The ether, the point-volume, as described needs to have one more characteristic to be able to explain stable particles like electrons, protons and neutrons. Apart from the earlier assumed possible charge separation in the point-volume, the positive and negative charge must also be able to leave the point-volume under restricted circumstances.

We first had to assume that the negative and or positive charges cannot be free to leave the point-volume because then the charge in the point-volumes surrounding the charged particle Q would penetrate the charged particle and destroy respectively annihilate it.

When we however assume that the positive or negative charge can (partly) leave the point-volume and penetrate in other point-volumes, the stable particles like electron and proton must have characteristics that prevent the charge of the point-volumes to penetrate and annihilate these particles.

A stable particle has to have an entity that prohibits the charge in ether to penetrate the particle when we assume the charge can leave the point-volumes.

Next chapter: The electron

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