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The photon



The photon

When you are inter­ested in physics you must read “Unbe­liev­able”!

To be able to explain the way the ether is func­tion­ing, much effort is spent on the assumed prop­er­ties of the ether. Now we have a clear pic­ture and a sim­ple math­e­mat­i­cal equa­tion for the elec­tron. The tremen­dous pos­si­bil­i­ties of the ether will soon become clear. It is com­monly known that an elec­tron can emit light. The elec­tron is pre­sented by the equa­tion for the total energy of the elec­tron Wt:

When the dielec­tric dis­place­ment, while the charge -Qe was expand­ing, got the rota­tion speed c, the ced­ing of charge stopped. The join­ing point-​volumes are no longer able to anni­hi­late the charge –Qe at the sphere with radius Re. The expan­sion of charge Qe stopped.

When we assume the elec­tron (Wt) has a speed in the sur­round­ing ether the sit­u­a­tion changes. In the chap­ter “The Lorentz­fac­tor and the ether” we indi­cated that the accel­er­at­ing force by the elec­tric field on charge Q declined with the fac­tor , the Lorentz-​factor in square. The reduc­ing fac­tor is here the Lorentz-​factor in square because the force is con­ducted by the pro­file of the ether still con­tribut­ing and “in touch” with the mov­ing particle.

In fig­ure 18 the cir­cle with radius Re presents the elec­tron at rest. The total energy of the elec­tron (Wt) is the intrin­sic energy of the elec­tron at rest (0 degrees Kelvin). When the elec­tron moves in the ether with a speed v the spin­ning ether on the out­side of the elec­tron (Re) loses con­tact with the ether because the speed of the ether is now c+v. The out­side of the elec­tron loses con­tact with the ether. An expand­ing elec­tron is not pos­si­ble because the energy We will be less accord­ing to the equa­tion when the elec­tron expands. The radius Rv of the mov­ing elec­tron has to decline (Rv<Re) and will do so until the spin­ning ether of the elec­tron has restored the con­tact with the sur­round­ing ether.

Fig­ure 18. The decline of the radius of the elec­tron in motion.

The elec­tron with speed v moves in dt sec­onds over a dis­tance vdt. Because the ether lags with the reverse speed of light 1/​c, the inter­ac­tion between the elec­tron and the sur­round­ing ether dimin­ishes with the Lorentz-​factor to Rv. The elec­tron can only decrease in size, because the charge is trapped by the mag­netic spin energy in the ether sur­round­ing the electron.

The for­mula for Wt of the elec­tron describes the enor­mous sta­bil­ity of the par­ti­cle. The radius always adjusts ade­quately to the cir­cum­stances. The elec­tron can­not dis­in­te­grate, because the energy is trapped. When the radius declines from Re to Rv, the energy of the elec­tron increases with the Lorentz-​factor. The total energy of the elec­tron with speed v in the ether is Wv and accord­ing to the described process the energy is:

Accord­ing to the equiv­a­lence prin­ci­ple of mass and energy the mass Mv of the elec­tron with speed v is:

When the elec­tron is accel­er­ated in an elec­tric field in the ether the elec­tron dimin­ishes in size. When the elec­tron leaves the elec­tric field E the decreased elec­tron is still in bal­ance with the ether it trav­els in. The speed remains v and there­fore the inter­ac­tion between the ether and elec­tron remains reduced with the Lorentz-​factor and there­fore the decreased size of the elec­tron is maintained.

We con­sider now the sit­u­a­tion wherein the elec­tron is forced to a halt. The inter­act­ing with the ether now increases in reverse. The mag­netic spin-​energy did not alter dur­ing the accel­er­a­tion. The elec­tro­sta­tic expan­sion force of the charge with radius Rv is, when the elec­tron is halted, greater than the con­trac­tion force of the spin-​energy (Re).

To make this sit­u­a­tion clear we look at the total energy of the mov­ing elec­tron before it is forced to a halt:

The first part of the for­mula describes the mag­netic spin energy of the elec­tron at rest (Re). This energy is not affected when the elec­tron is accel­er­ated or slowed down. The sec­ond part is the elec­tro­sta­tic energy of the dimin­ished elec­tron (Rv). The third part is the mag­netic energy induced in the ether due to the speed v.

To explain the oscil­la­tion of the elec­tron when it is halted to a stop we have to con­sider an elec­tron mov­ing with speed v at rest with the ether. The poten­tial energy is deter­mined by Rv and the mag­netic spin energy by Re.

When the elec­tron accel­er­ates the inter­ac­tion with the ether decreases. The sta­bil­ity of the elec­tron is guar­an­teed by the mag­netic energy exist­ing in the ether sur­round­ing the elec­tron. The elec­tron has to con­tract to Rv because the rota­tion energy is the same but the inter­act­ing of the charge with the ether decreased with Rv/​Re. The mag­netic rota­tion energy (Re) and the elec­tro­sta­tic energy (Rv) are in bal­ance as long as the elec­tron is mov­ing in the ether with speed v. When the elec­tron is forced to a halt the mag­netic– and poten­tial energy are no longer in equilibrium.

The inter­ac­tion between elec­tron and ether increases now with the Lorentz-​factor. So when the elec­tron is stopped the poten­tial elec­tro­sta­tic energy is not in bal­ance with the mag­netic energy any­more. The elec­tron will expand from Rv to Re to achieve equal­ity between the expand­ing elec­tro­sta­tic force and the con­tract­ing spin force.

The elec­tron expands before the lag­ging mag­netic energy (the third part of the for­mula), caused by the move­ment and the inert qual­ity of ether reaches the elec­tron. The equi­lib­rium of elec­tro­sta­tic and mag­netic spin energy is no more. The elec­tron expands to Re; the energy level that coin­cides with the spin-​energy. The elec­tron is forced in a state of oscil­la­tion by the sur­plus of elec­tro­sta­tic and mag­netic energy. The vibrat­ing elec­tron inter­acts with the ether and induces an oscil­lat­ing dielec­tric dis­place­ment in the ether around the elec­tron. The elec­tron is incred­i­bly sta­ble, so it is only a mat­ter of time until the oscil­lat­ing elec­tron will reject the sur­plus of energy by means of a photon.

The energy of the pho­ton is given by:

Ef=hc/λ

Where λ is the wave­length of the photon.

High-​energy pho­tons have enough mag­netic and poten­tial energy to sep­a­rate the point-​volume def­i­nitely in a pos­i­tive and neg­a­tive elec­tron. When the high energy pho­ton col­lides with a par­ti­cle the kinetic resp. mag­netic energy of the pho­ton is trans­ferred to the spin-​energy of the pos­i­tive and neg­a­tive elec­tron. The kinetic resp. mag­netic energy of pho­ton is trans­ferred to the mag­netic spin energy that traps the charges of the electrons.

The oscil­la­tion energy of the pho­ton is trans­ferred to the poten­tial energy of both oppo­site charges. An elec­tron cou­ple is born (for fur­ther expla­na­tion we refer to the chap­ter The pho­ton and the con­stant of Planck). Energy has become mat­ter.

Next chap­ter: The pho­ton mathematically

When you are interested in physics you must read “Unbelievable“!

To be able to explain the way the ether is functioning, much effort is spent on the assumed properties of the ether. Now we have a clear picture and a simple mathematical equation for the electron. The tremendous possibilities of the ether will soon become clear. It is commonly known that an electron can emit light. The electron is presented by the equation for the total energy of the electron Wt:

When the dielectric displacement, while the charge –Qe was expanding, got the rotation speed c, the ceding of charge stopped. The joining point-volumes are no longer able to annihilate the charge –Qe at the sphere with radius Re. The expansion of charge Qe stopped.

When we assume the electron (Wt) has a speed in the surrounding ether the situation changes. In the chapter “The Lorentzfactor and the ether” we indicated that the accelerating force by the electric field on charge Q declined with the factor , the Lorentz-factor in square. The reducing factor is here the Lorentz-factor in square because the force is conducted by the profile of the ether still contributing and “in touch” with the moving particle.

In figure 18 the circle with radius Re presents the electron at rest. The total energy of the electron (Wt) is the intrinsic energy of the electron at rest (0 degrees Kelvin). When the electron moves in the ether with a speed v the spinning ether on the outside of the electron (Re) loses contact with the ether because the speed of the ether is now c+v. The outside of the electron loses contact with the ether. An expanding electron is not possible because the energy We will be less according to the equation when the electron expands. The radius Rv of the moving electron has to decline (Rv<Re) and will do so until the spinning ether of the electron has restored the contact with the surrounding ether.

Figure 18. The decline of the radius of the electron in motion.

The electron with speed v moves in dt seconds over a distance vdt. Because the ether lags with the reverse speed of light 1/c, the interaction between the electron and the surrounding ether diminishes with the Lorentz-factor to Rv. The electron can only decrease in size, because the charge is trapped by the magnetic spin energy in the ether surrounding the electron.

The formula for Wt of the electron describes the enormous stability of the particle. The radius always adjusts adequately to the circumstances. The electron cannot disintegrate, because the energy is trapped. When the radius declines from Re to Rv, the energy of the electron increases with the Lorentz-factor. The total energy of the electron with speed v in the ether is Wv and according to the described process the energy is:

According to the equivalence principle of mass and energy the mass Mv of the electron with speed v is:

When the electron is accelerated in an electric field in the ether the electron diminishes in size. When the electron leaves the electric field E the decreased electron is still in balance with the ether it travels in. The speed remains v and therefore the interaction between the ether and electron remains reduced with the Lorentz-factor and therefore the decreased size of the electron is maintained.

We consider now the situation wherein the electron is forced to a halt. The interacting with the ether now increases in reverse. The magnetic spin-energy did not alter during the acceleration. The electrostatic expansion force of the charge with radius Rv is, when the electron is halted, greater than the contraction force of the spin-energy (Re).

To make this situation clear we look at the total energy of the moving electron before it is forced to a halt:

The first part of the formula describes the magnetic spin energy of the electron at rest (Re). This energy is not affected when the electron is accelerated or slowed down. The second part is the electrostatic energy of the diminished electron (Rv). The third part is the magnetic energy induced in the ether due to the speed v.

To explain the oscillation of the electron when it is halted to a stop we have to consider an electron moving with speed v at rest with the ether. The potential energy is determined by Rv and the magnetic spin energy by Re.

When the electron accelerates the interaction with the ether decreases. The stability of the electron is guaranteed by the magnetic energy existing in the ether surrounding the electron. The electron has to contract to Rv because the rotation energy is the same but the interacting of the charge with the ether decreased with Rv/Re. The magnetic rotation energy (Re) and the electrostatic energy (Rv) are in balance as long as the electron is moving in the ether with speed v. When the electron is forced to a halt the magnetic- and potential energy are no longer in equilibrium.

The interaction between electron and ether increases now with the Lorentz-factor. So when the electron is stopped the potential electrostatic energy is not in balance with the magnetic energy anymore. The electron will expand from Rv to Re to achieve equality between the expanding electrostatic force and the contracting spin force.

The electron expands before the lagging magnetic energy (the third part of the formula), caused by the movement and the inert quality of ether reaches the electron. The equilibrium of electrostatic and magnetic spin energy is no more. The electron expands to Re; the energy level that coincides with the spin-energy. The electron is forced in a state of oscillation by the surplus of electrostatic and magnetic energy. The vibrating electron interacts with the ether and induces an oscillating dielectric displacement in the ether around the electron. The electron is incredibly stable, so it is only a matter of time until the oscillating electron will reject the surplus of energy by means of a photon.

The energy of the photon is given by:

Ef=hc/λ

Where λ is the wavelength of the photon.

High-energy photons have enough magnetic and potential energy to separate the point-volume definitely in a positive and negative electron. When the high energy photon collides with a particle the kinetic resp. magnetic energy of the photon is transferred to the spin-energy of the positive and negative electron. The kinetic resp. magnetic energy of photon is transferred to the magnetic spin energy that traps the charges of the electrons.

The oscillation energy of the photon is transferred to the potential energy of both opposite charges. An electron couple is born (for further explanation we refer to the chapter The photon and the constant of Planck). Energy has become matter.

Next chapter: The photon mathematically

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